Representativeness based Sampling Network Design for the State of Alaska

Title: Representativeness-based Sampling Network Design for the State of Alaska


Forrest M. Hoffman (, Jitendra Kumar (, Richard T. Mills (, and William W. Hargrove (


Resource and logistical constraints limit the frequency and extent of environmental observations, particularly in the Arctic, necessitating the development of a systematic sampling strategy to maximize coverage and objectively represent environmental variability at desired scales. A quantitative methodology for stratifying sampling domains, informing site selection, and determining the representativeness of measurement sites and networks is described here. Multivariate spatiotemporal clustering was applied to down-scaled general circulation model results and data for the State of Alaska at 4 km2 resolution to define multiple sets of ecoregions across two decadal time periods. Maps of ecoregions for the present (2000–2009) and future (2090–2099) were produced, showing how combinations of 37 characteristics are distributed and how they may shift in the future. Representative sampling locations are identified on present and future ecoregion maps. A representativeness metric was developed, and representativeness maps for eight candidate sampling locations were produced. This metric was used to characterize the environmental similarity of each site. This analysis provides model-inspired insights into optimal sampling strategies, offers a framework for up-scaling measurements, and provides a down-scaling approach for integration of models and measurements. These techniques can be applied at different spatial and temporal scales to meet the needs of individual measurement campaigns.


This data collection contains all the data sets described in Hoffman et. al. 2013.

Dataset DOI: 10.5440/1108686


Hoffman, Forrest M., Jitendra Kumar, Richard T. Mills, and William W. Hargrove. October 1, 2013. “Representativeness-based Sampling Network Design for the State of Alaska.” Landscape Ecol., 28(8):1567–1586. doi:10.1007/s10980-013-9902-0

Level of Division (k)Present (2000-2009)Future (2090-2099)
Ecoregion Maps








Levels of Division (k)Present (2000-2009)Future (2090-2099)
Realized Ecoregion Centroids









Site Representativeness Maps: Present


Site Representativeness Maps: Future











Network Representativeness: Present
Barrow +
All 8






Network Representativeness: Future
Barrow +
All 8







Instructions for Processing and Importing

List of files in this data collection

Data set point of contact: Jitendra Kumar (, Forrest M. Hoffman (